Staircase House was originally a cruck timber building with its earliest known surviving timbers dating from 1459–1460. The first known residents were the Shallcross family who owned the House from 1605 to 1730. In 1618 they installed the distinctive Jacobean cage newel staircase, from which the house takes its modern name.
The characteristic of a cage newel staircase is that each of its newel posts extends throughout the full height of the staircase, the four posts and the banisters thus forming a stairwell which is not fully enclosed, but, rather, contained within a cage-like structure. At Staircase House the newel posts were each sawn through, just below the stringer board and just above the handrail. This may have reflected changing tastes, or possibly to overcome the practical difficulties of moving large objects, such as furniture, about the house.